Short Cross Class VI

The final few years of Class VI was the period of the First Baron’s War, a civil war in which a group of rebellious major landowners (commonly referred to as the barons) led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John.

On 18 October 1216 John contracted dysentery which would ultimately prove fatal. He died at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, and with him the main reason for the fighting. Louis now seemed much more of a threat to baronial interests than John’s nine-year-old son, Prince Henry.

Pierre des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, and a number of barons rushed to have the young Henry be crowned as King of England. London was held by Louis (it was his seat of government) and therefore could not be used for this coronation so, on 28 October 1216, they brought the boy from the castle at Devizes to Gloucester Abbey in front of a small attendance presided over by a Papal Legate.. They crowned Henry with a band of gold made from a necklace.

William Marshal slowly managed to get most barons to switch sides from Louis to Henry and attack Louis. After a year and a half of war, most of the rebellious barons had defected. Louis VIII had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth on 11 September 1217. Louis accepted 10,000 marks to relinquish his English dominions and returned home.

Class VIc/VId Mints and moneyers:

Six mints were active for class VI:

Canterbury – Arnold, Henri, Hiun/Iun, Iohan, Robert, Roger, Salemun, Samuel, Simon, Tomas, Walter

London – Abel, Ilger, Rauf, Walter

Bury – Rauf

Winchester – Henri

York – Iohan, Peres, Tomas, Wilem

Note that many of the above names are not unique to Henry III pennies.  There is no clear distinction between the coins of Henry III and those of his predecessor, John.  Henry came to the throne in 1216 during the production of class 6c coins. 

Class VIc is sub-divided into VIc1, VIc2 and VIc3.  VIc1 has plain lettering and two hair curls each side of the bust, VIb has three hair curls and one or more ornamental letters, and VIc has three hair curls and plain letters.   Class VId is a rare sub-type characterised by the presence of a pellet on the cross-bar of the letter “N”.

Class VIc3 – c.1217

The Battle of Sandwich, also called the Battle of Dover took place on 24 August 1217 as part of the First Barons’ War. A Plantagenet Englishfleet commanded by Hubert de Burgh attacked a Capetian French armada led by Eustace the Monk and Robert of Courtenay off Sandwich, Kent. The English captured the French flagship and most of the supply vessels, forcing the rest of the French fleet to return to Calais. The French fleet was attempting to bring supplies to Prince Louis, later King Louis VIII of France, whose French forces held London at that time. The English vessels attacked from windward, seizing Eustace’s ship, making Robert and the knights prisoner and killing the rest of the crew. Eustace, a notorious pirate, was executed after being taken prisoner. The battle convinced Prince Louis to abandon his effort to conquer England and the Treaty of Lambeth was signed a few weeks later. (Wikipedia)